Thursday, February 25, 2010

Ducati Motor Holding, SpA

Ducati Singles (1950 to 1973)

With the success of the Cucciolo engine, Ducati decided to partner with SIATA to produce its first small-displacement motorcycle in 1950. The first Ducati was called the was 55M (65TL), and featured a 60cc pushrod engine that produced a top speed of 40 mph.

The Ducati 100 Gran Sport

The limited production 1954 100 Gran Sport was designed by Fabio Taglioni ("Dr. T"), founder of the now-defunct Ceccato Motorcycles. The Gran Sport had a 98cc single-cylinder engine with a OHC overhead-cam driven by a vertical shaft with conical gears, and a 10º forward tilt to the nearly vertical cylinder head. The Gran Sport's single-cylinder OHC engine design was the precursor for two decades of engine production at Ducati.

1955 Ducati 100 Gran Sport
1955 Ducati 100 Gran Sport

In 1953, 'Societa Scientifica Radio Brevetti Ducati' was broken into two separate companies: Ducati Elettronica SpA, and the motorcycle division of Ducati Meccanica SpA. Fabio Taglioni was elevated to chief designer of Ducati Meccanica in 1954, and his Gran Sport was upgraded to a 125cc double overhead cam (DOHC) engine in 1956.

100cc Gran Sport Engine
100cc Gran Sport Engine

As the popularity and performance of Ducati motorcycles grew with Italian enthusiasts, they set out to position itself as a race-worthy marque.

The Ducati Desmo (Desmodromic) Engine

To develop higher horsepower race-capable engines with such small displacement, it was necessary to significantly increase the rpm range of their racing motors. The 125cc Gran Sport engine was capable of safely hitting the 11,500 rpm range, without producing enough valve-float to collide piston with valve.
The principle of mechanically 'forcing' the valve to close, and not relying totally on a valve-spring, was first conceived in the late 1800s, but was not put into practical use until the 1930s. This mechanical valve system became known as "desmodromics," which is Greek for desmos, meaning 'controlled,' and dromos, meaning 'course.'

1959 Ducati 175cc Formula 3 Production Racer
1959 Ducati 175cc Formula 3 Production Racer

Milan-based motorcycle company Mòndial toyed with the idea of a desmodromic engine in the early 1950s, but soon abandoned the idea. Ducati first developed their own version of a desmodromic, or "Desmo" valve system in 1956, using the design on their 125cc Grand Prix race bike. The 125cc Desmo was capable of reaching a maximum 14,000 to 15,000 rpm range, thereby creating higher horespower.

1959 Ducati 200 Super Sport
1959 Ducati 200 Super Sport

The 125cc Ducati Desmo proved to be a race-worthy competitor to the MV Agusta, which had previously dominated the 125cc GP class.
During the 1950s, America's newfound interest in Italian marques such as Ducati had prompted two brothers named Joseph and Michael Berliner to open the first Ducati franchise in the United States - the Berliner Motor Corporation of New Jersey. Berliner was soon able to exert a great deal of influence in the design of new models that were destined for the American consumer.

Ducati 200cc Super Sport Engine
Ducati 200cc Super Sport Engine

In the late 1950s, Ducati introduced the 125 Monza and Monza 'Super,' and Ducati was now trying to squeeze as much horsepower as possible out of their 125cc engine, with their retail competitors moving to higher displacement engines.

Ducati 125cc Sport
1962 Ducati 125 Sport

Fabio Taglioni steadily increased the reliability, displacement, and power of Ducati's single-cylinder engine using faster cams, high-compression pistons, and Dell'Orto SS racing carburetors, helping Ducati to win several Grand Prix championships over the next decade.

The Ducati 250cc Mach 3 Diana

Ducati moved into the 250cc displacement category in the early 1960s, with the introduction of the 'Ducati 250' and Mark 3 (Mach 3) 'Diana' Super Sport.

1965 Ducati Mark 3 Diana
1965 Ducati Mark 3 Diana

Moving up the displacement ladder, Ducati introduced its first 350cc production motorcycle in the mid 1960s, which was called the '350 Sebring.' By this point, US Ducati importer Berliner was pushing for the reluctant company to start producing larger displacement twins that could compete with Indian and Harley Davidson.

1965 Ducati Mark 3 Diana 250cc Engine
Ducati 250cc Mark 3 Diana OHC Engine

In 1967, the Italian government took over the day-to-day operations of Ducati through the holding company known as EFIM (Ente Partecipazioni e Finanziamento Industria Manifatturiera), which now controlled over 114 industrial companies within Italy.

1969 Ducati 350 GP Racer
1969 Ducati 350 SCR Racer

By 1967, Ducati Meccanica SpA produced its first "production" desmodromic (Desmo) consumer model, the Mark 3D. The Ducati 450 cc motor was the company's largest displacement model to date. Unfortunately for Ducati, the non-Italian buying public was looking for 2-cylinder larger-displacement motorcycles, and Ducati would need to change with the times to survive.

The Ducati Apollo

By the mid 1960s, the Berliner brothers helped to underwrite the development of Ducati's first multi-cylinder engine. The bike, having a launch date of late 1965, was to be named the Ducati 'Apollo,' featuring a 1256cc 90º V-four engine, with two valves per cylinder. With over 100 bhp, it would have been one of the most powerful motorcycles of the time.
Unfortunately for the Berliner brothers, the Italian government's EFIM management nixed the project, however the development of the Apollo's engine did lead to the development of smaller displacement 90º V-Twin engines in 1970. Ducati's unusual positioning of the V-Twin lead to it being referred to as the "L-Twin."

Ducati Twins (1970 to Present) - V-Twin 750GT

In 1970, Ducati's first v-twin engines were designed primarily for use in Grand Prix racing. Working with Italjet founder Leopoldo Tartarini, Fabio Taglioni designed and built several 500cc V-Twin racing Ducatis.

The Ducati 750GT & 860GT

The first production v-twin was the Ducati 750GT, with bevel-gear driven two-valve cylinder heads, fibreglass gastank, and painted silver frame. The 750GT evolved over the next decade to be sold as the 750 Sport, 750SS, 860GT & GTS, 900SS and Mike Hailwood Replica.

1977 Ducati 860cc Engine
1977 Ducati 860GT

Ducati engineers moved to a belt-driven double overhead camshaft (DOHC) system for their GP bikes in 1973. The belt-drive engines were distinguished by their a radial-finned forward cylinder head.

The Ducati 'Pantah' Series

Ducati's first use of the belt-driven camshaft in a production motorcycle came in 1980, with the 500cc "Pantah 500SL." The Pantah engine's belt-drive would be the precursor for all Ducati v-twin engines to come. The Pantah also featured the first use of the now signature "trellis frame," which incorporated the engine/transmission as a stress member, and swingarm pivot point.

1988 Ducati 750F1
1988 Ducati 750 F1

The Pantah engined series lasted for six years under the model names: 500SL, 600SL, 600TL, 650SL and the 750 F1 series which was the last of the Pantah line in 1986. The F1 was one of the premier "superbikes" of the 1980s, which were followed by the 4-valve 851 series.
The 750 F1, first released in 1985, was designed by Taglioni, and was the first production Ducati to use the Verlicchi-style trellis frame with mono-shock rear suspension. The F1 used fully-floating front and rear disc brakes.

Cagiva's Purchase of Ducati

In 1985, Ducati Meccanica SpA was purchased by Cagiva, who also purchased MV Agusta in 1987.

1993 Ducati Supermono
Rare 1993 Ducati Supermono

The Ducati 851 Desmoquattro

In late 1987, the Ducati 851 went into production with a desmodromic four-valve per cylinder engine, dubbed as the "Desmoquattro," or Quattrovalvole. The Ducati 851 with its fuel injected, and liquid cooled design was the precursor to the 888, 916 (designed by Massimo Tamburini), 996S, 996 Biposto, and 996SPS with Öhlins suspension.

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